Although the vast majority of exchanges occurring presently are delayed exchanges, let us briefly explain a few other exchanging alternatives.
Investors have been doing simultaneous exchange s since the 1920's. In fact, prior to Congress modifying the Internal Revenue Code as to exchanges and formally approving the concept of delayed exchanging, virtually all exchanges were of the simultaneous type. To qualify as a simultaneous exchange, both the relinquished property and the replacement property must close and record on the same day.
Improvement and Construction Exchanges
In some cases, the replacement property requires new construction or significant improvements to be completed in order to make it viable for the specific purpose that an Exchanger has intended for it. This construction or improvements can be accomplished as part of a structured exchange process, with payments to contractors and other suppliers being made by the facilitator out of funds held in a trust account. Therefore, for instance if the replacement property is of lesser value than the relinquished property at the time of the original transaction, the improvement or construction costs can bring the value of the replacement property up to an exchange level or value which would be equal to the relinquished thereby allowing the transaction to remain tax free.
Improvement and construction exchanges can be tricky however. That's because the process does require the use of a concept which we use in reverse exchanges. Namely, a warehousing of the title until such a time as the improvements are done or the 180 days is close. This is because technically you cannot exchange into property you already own. So if you bought the replacement and then did the improvements, the value you added would not count towards the exchange. That is why we use what is called an EAT or exchange accommodation titleholder.
The reverse exchange is actually a misnomer. It represents an exchange in which the Exchanger locates a replacement property and wants to acquire it before the actual closing of the relinquished or exchange property. Since the Exchanger cannot purchase the replacement and later exchange into property that he already owns, he must find a method to acquire the replacement property and still maintain the integrity of his exchange. Reverses are typically accomplished in two formats based upon transaction logistics and the financing needs of the Exchanger.
The Exchange Last strategy is utilized only when the Exchanger requires traditional financing to complete his acquisition of the replacement property. Since few lenders would lend dollars to the Exchanger with the facilitator or Qualified Intermediary (known in this case as an Exchange Accommodation Titleholder) on title, it is necessary for the facilitator to warehouse or hold the title to the relinquished property. In this approach, the exchange is complete at the moment the Exchanger accepts the title to the new replacement property. However, with the prospect of the exchange being complete, it is necessary to balance equities between relinquished and replacement, prior to closing. In other words, upon closing the replacement, there must be an equal amount of equity in the replacement property as is expected to come out of the later sale of the relinquished property. Then, at the time of the later sale of the relinquished or exchange property, any debt is retired and the Exchanger is repaid any dollars which he advanced for the replacement property acquisition.
In an Exchange First scenario, the facilitator, with the aid of a loan from the Exchanger, acquires the replacement property and warehouses or holds the property title until such time as the relinquished property is sold and the exchange can be completed.
At this point we need to insert several caveats regarding reverse exchanges. They tend to be more complicated than other exchanges and because they involve the holding of title by a facilitator in the form of an Exchange Accommodation Titleholder, they require extensive planning. Do not undertake a reverse exchange without the assistance of an experienced and knowledgeable facilitator or intermediary.
Delayed or Deferred Exchanges
Generally, when one discusses exchanges, the type of exchange referred to is the delayed or Starker exchange. This term comes from the name of the Exchanger who was first challenged for a delayed exchange by the IRS. From this tax court conflict came the code change in 1984 that formally recognized the delayed exchange for the first time. As mentioned earlier, this is now the most common type of exchange.
In a delayed exchange, the relinquished property is sold at Time 1, and after a delay, the replacement property is acquired at Time 2. The timing requirements are these: you have a total of 180 days or the due date of your tax return to complete an exchange. That is the exchange period. And, the first 45 days of the 180 is known as the identification period in which you need to identify some candidate or target properties to serve as your replacement. And that's the types of exchanges.